When you think about Scala web applications you’re probably thinking Play. This framework to me is the de facto standard for
building web applications in Scala. It offers a great set of features that make it really easy to build web applications.

The framework looks very similar to Rails and ASP.NET Core. I think it has the great things of both and adds more on top of
that by enabling Akka actors and a functional programming style that I find more logical to use these days.

One thing that ASP.NET Core and other frameworks have that Play doesn’t have is a proper set of authorization classes
and interfaces. Sure there’s deadbolt and play-authenticate. But I found that deadbolt is a bit hard to use. There’s a
lot of stuff you have to do to secure your app.

In this post I will show you how you can secure access to your app using a basic set of action builders and action filters.

Actions in Play

Instead of regular methods Play uses so-called action builders. An action in Play is defined using the following code:

class MyController extends Controller {
def myAction = Action {
Ok("Hello world")
}
}


You basically tell the application that there’s a piece of code that it can use to complete a route that is defined in the routes file.

GET /some-path    controller.MyController.myAction


The output of the action is the Result of action. This can be any HTTP status code with some content attached to it. What content that is,
is entirely up to you. You can send JSON, HTML, XML or some other format if you like.

The term Action is a class that derives from the ActionBuilder class. A basic action doesn’t do much. When the HTTP request is handled by
Play it will automatically invoke the block of code that follows the Action keyword in your code.

You can do some pretty interesting things with ActionBuilders to extend the behavior of an action. For example, you can perform authorization
checks before you allow the application to execute the block that you defined.

Before we dive into authorization let’s build a basic action builder that logs the current request. First you need to create a new class that
derives from ActionBuilder. In the sample I’ve gone for the LoggedAction definition. But you can give it any name you want.

import play.Logger;

object LoggedAction extends ActionBuilder[Request] {
override def invokeBlock[A](request: Request[A], block: (Request[A]) => Future[Result]): Future[Result] = {
Logger.debug(s"Received request for ${request.path}") block(request) } }  The action builder has a method called invokeBlock. It gets a block and the request. It should return a Future[Result]. The action builder implementation for a logged action is rather simple. Grab a logger and write a message to it. After we’ve done that, continue the execution of the original block. To use the the ActionBuilder implementation you can add it to your controller or you could place it in a separate file. It depends on whether you want the action builder to be reusable across controllers. With the new action builder you can create a logged action like so: class MyController extends Controller { def myAction = LoggedAction { Ok("Hello world") } }  Authorizing access to a particular action Let’s make things a little more complex. Now that you’ve seen how you can build an action builder in Play I want to show you how you can create a reusable piece of authorization logic for your controllers. The first step is to create a new trait with the name AuthorizationSupport so that we can say something like this: class MyController extends Controller with AuthorizationSupport { }  This is a controller that has AuthorizationSupport. Which is nice, since now I know that my controller has actions that need authenticated users. I like this style since it tells you straight up what you can expect to see in your controller code. Within this trait we’re going to define a custom action builder that requires users to be authenticated before they can execute an action: trait AuthorizationSupport extends Controller { object AuthenticatedAction extends ActionBuilder[RequestWithPrincipal] { override def invokeBlock[A](request: Request[A], block: (RequestWithPrincipal[A]) => Future[Result]): Future[Result] = ??? } }  The implementation of the action builder is as follows. When a principal can be found on the request the code in the provided block should be executed with a request object that provides access to the current user. If a user cannot be found, the result should be the login page. trait AuthorizationSupport extends Controller { def authorizationHandler: AuthorizationHandler object AuthenticatedAction extends ActionBuilder[RequestWithPrincipal] { override def invokeBlock[A](request: Request[A], block: (RequestWithPrincipal[A]) => Future[Result]): Future[Result] = { def unauthorizedAction = authorizationHandler.unauthorized(RequestWithOptionalPrincipal(None, request)) def authorizedAction(principal: Principal) = block(RequestWithPrincipal(principal, request)) authorizationHandler.principal(request).fold(unauthorizedAction)(authorizedAction) } } }  The fragment above determines the current principal using an authorization handler implementation that you need to provide to the AuthorizationSupport trait. I’ve opted for this so that the logic to determine the current principal is not in the controller itself. Imagine that you have twenty controllers all duplicating this logic. That’s not very maintainable. I’ve done the same with the logic to show the login page when the user is not authenticated so that both pieces of logic are reusable across multiple controllers. The code for the AuthorizationHandler trait looks like this: trait AuthorizationHandler { def unauthorized[A](request: RequestWithOptionalPrincipal[A]): Future[Result] def principal[A](request: Request[A]): Option[Principal] }  The action builder invokes the original code block using a RequestWithPrincipal instance. I’ve done that because I want the principal to be available to you in the controller action. The RequestWithPrincipal class is a wrapped request that has all the original properties of the incoming request but with an additional principal property. import play.api.mvc.{Request, WrappedRequest} object RequestWithPrincipal { def apply[A](principal: Principal, request: Request[A]): RequestWithPrincipal[A] = { new RequestWithPrincipal(principal, request) } } class RequestWithPrincipal[A](val principal: Principal, request: Request[A]) extends WrappedRequest[A](request) { }  You can use the action builder in your controller by calling the AuthenticatedAction action builder. The code block that comes directly after that is supplied with a RequestWithPrincipal instance so you can make use of the current principal. class MyController @Inject() (authorizationHandler: AuthorizationHandler) extends Controller with AuthorizationSupport { def myAction = AuthenticatedAction { implicit request => Ok(s"Hello${request.principal.identifier}")
}
}


We’ve talked about externalizing some of the code for authorization to an external AuthorizationHandler. The handler can be implemented
by creating a new class called ApplicationAuthorizationHandler that extends the AuthorizationHandler trait.

class ApplicationAuthorizationHandler extends AuthorizationHandler {
override def unauthorized[A](request: RequestWithOptionalPrincipal[A]): Future[Result] = {
Future {
}
}
}


You need to register this class with the application module so that Play is able to inject it automatically for you.

class Module extends AbstractModule {
override def configure() = {
// ... Other bindings
bind(classOf[AuthorizationHandler]).to(classOf[ApplicationAuthorizationHandler])
}
}


With this you have a complete solution for authorizing access to authenticated users in your application. But that
doesn’t make it a complete authorization solution if you ask me.

Refining access using action functions

In any practical situation you need to have more than just action builders that allow only authenticated users.
You need a way to restrict access to parts of your application based on claims, roles or permissions.

There’s a need trick that you can use to build a component that restricts access to a specific set of claims, roles or
permissions. Play supports the use of action functions.

There are three kinds of action functions in Play:

1. ActionFilter
2. ActionTransformer
3. ActionRefiner

The ActionFilter can be used to stop an action from executing given that a certain condition is met. You need to implement
the filter function that either returns Some(Result) or a None in case you want the action to be executed.

Alternatively you can use the ActionTransformer if you don’t need to filter an action, but you want to transform the request
so that it contains extra information for the action. This trait contains the transform function that you need to implement.
In this function you can transform the incoming request to another type of request.

The final and most powerful action function is the ActionRefiner. This action function can transform and filter actions based
on your input. This trait contains the refine function that you need to implement in order to refine the action.

In case of our authorization operation you can use this function to do a couple of things. First you need to check if the
incoming request meets the authorization conditions that you specify. If the user is not authorized the original action
should not be executed. Instead the user should see an access denied page. In the other case where the user is authorized
the original action should be executed.

An ActionRefiner implementation is a complex beast that requires some getting used to. So let’s implement one step-by-step.

trait AuthorizationSupport {
def authorizationHandler: AuthorizationHandler

// ...

def authorizeUsingPolicy(policy: AuthorizationPolicy): ActionRefiner[RequestWithPrincipal, RequestWithPrincipal] =
new ActionRefiner[RequestWithPrincipal, RequestWithPrincipal] {
override protected def refine[A](request: RequestWithPrincipal[A]): Future[Either[Result, RequestWithPrincipal[A]]] = {
}
}
}


The above code demonstrates the basic structure of the authorizeUsingPolicy action refiner. I’ve defined it as a method
so that I can inject an authorization policy which is going to perform the actual access check.

The action refiner returns a Future of either a Result or a Request. If you return a Left(Result) this means that the action should
not be executed. Instead the result you created should be sent to the client. If you return Right(SomeRequest) the action gets executed
with the specified request.

In order to apply this to our authorization check we need to make sure that when the authorization policy returns False, the user

trait AuthorizationSupport {
def authorizationHandler: AuthorizationHandler

// ...

def authorizeUsingPolicy(policy: AuthorizationPolicy): ActionRefiner[RequestWithPrincipal, RequestWithPrincipal] =
new ActionRefiner[RequestWithPrincipal, RequestWithPrincipal] {
override protected def refine[A](request: RequestWithPrincipal[A]): Future[Either[Result, RequestWithPrincipal[A]]] = {
if(!policy.allowed(request)) {
authorizationHandler.denied(request).map(Left(_))
} else {
//TODO: Allow action to continue
}
}
}
}


I’m using the AuthorizationHandler implementation from earlier to achieve the desired effect. Remember, this is to make the code
more reusable across my controllers.

If authorization policy check was successful we need to return Right(SomeRequest) so that the original action is executed.

trait AuthorizationSupport {
def authorizationHandler: AuthorizationHandler

// ...

def authorizeUsingPolicy(policy: AuthorizationPolicy): ActionRefiner[RequestWithPrincipal, RequestWithPrincipal] =
new ActionRefiner[RequestWithPrincipal, RequestWithPrincipal] {
override protected def refine[A](request: RequestWithPrincipal[A]): Future[Either[Result, RequestWithPrincipal[A]]] = {
if(!policy.allowed(request)) {
authorizationHandler.denied(request).map(Left(_))
} else {
Future.successful(Right(request))
}
}
}
}


You can combine the authorizeUsingPolicy action function with the AuthenticatedAction action builder to complete the authorization pipeline:

class MyController @Inject() (val authorizationHandler: AuthorizationHandler, myPolicy: CustomPolicy) extends Controller with AuthorizationSupport {
def myAction = (AuthenticatedAction andThen authorizeUsingPolicy(myPolicy)) { implicit request =>
Ok(s"Hello \${request.principal.identifier}")
}
}


Final thoughts and resources

Action builders and action filters allow for some pretty powerful request pipeline in Play. Authorization is just one of the ways in which
you can modify requests before controller logic is executed.

You can combine multiple types of action builders together with a mix of action functions to a complex pipeline of logic that is reusable
across your application controllers. You can, for example , combine logging with authorization and other functionality without writing a lot of code.

If you’re interested in the code, it’s up on Github. Feel free to drop me a pull request
if you think something can be done differently or have a feature to add :-)