/ Docker

How to connect Azure API management to your Kubernetes cluster

For a customer I'm working on a new cloud architecture that will help them move to production quicker.
The goal for our team is to setup a working product, but at the same time we're learning the customer how to build
cloud applications using DevOps and continuous delivery.

Because this project is completely new, we use .NET core. Because stuff I would say. But also, because we think
it is the way forward. To make things easier to deploy we package every service up as a docker container and deploy
it in a Kubernetes cluster on Azure.

This setup is saving us tons of time. We have a runtime and development environment that is modern and suited for continuous
deployment. Also, we can scale our application much easier than before. All we need to do is to tell kubernetes to scale a deployment
to a specific number of pods.

One thing we were working on last week is the connection from the frontend to our services. We don't want people to access the services
that we wrote in .NET core directly. We need a way to limit who can access our services and make sure that they aren't abusing our
services by sending too many requests.

We use Azure API management as an API gateway. This tool provides us with a way to expose our REST services in a central location.
Also it has things like rate limiting and all sorts of policies that you can apply to your services. For example, you can secure
access using access tokens through a single policy for all your REST services. Pretty sweet.

All is well, but not very accessible sadly

There is a problem with the setup we choose for our API gateway.

Kubernetes has this system where docker containers get virtual IP addresses that aren't directly accessible from outside
the Kubernetes cluster or even from other docker containers.

To use a REST service that is deployed on Kubernetes, you need to define a service. You have several kinds
of services on Kubernetes. One of the types that is supported is the ClusterIP service.
It can be used to assign a virtual name and address to your deployment that
is accessible within the Kubernetes cluster. For services that you want to access from the internet
you can define a LoadBalancer service. This makes your deployment available from the internet.

If you want someone to access your only through an API gateway you typically expose your REST services as ClusterIP services and only expose the API Gateway through as a LoadBalancer service. That connects the API gateway to the
internet while keeping the rest private, but accessible by the API gateway.

Azure API managemnt however is not part of your Kubernetes cluster. So the setup that I just described does not work.
You could of course expose all your REST services as LoadBalancer service within Kubernetes and then hook them up to
Azure API management. But that makes it less secure.

Connect Azure API management to your Kubernetes Cluster

You can fix the problem however through a few clever tricks. The first step is to connect API management to your Kubernetes virtual network.

If you've setup Kubernetes on Azure using Azure Container Services, you have a virtual network for your Kubernetes cluster.
Within this network there are a number of machines, one master and a few agents. Also, there's a load balancer for the public
service registrations.

You can connect Azure API management to this subnet. Which ultimately gives it access to the services within your Kubernetes
cluster. There are however some particular details you need to be aware of.

To connect your Azure API management instance, first create a new subnet within the virtual network that your Kubernetes nodes
are located in. You can set it up as with an address range like It is a very small subnet. But that's the idea.

You cannot connect Azure API management to a subnet that contains other devices. It just doesn't like that. So we create a new
subnet within our virtual network.

Subnet configuration

Move over to your API management instance and select the item Virtual network from the left side of the configuration panel.
From the list of locations displayed in this panel, select the region that you want to connect.

Virtual network configuration

Then select the virtual network of your Kubernetes cluster and the new subnet you created earlier.

Connection properties

Save the changes and wait for 15 - 45 minutes. Just enough time for a cup of coffee :-)

Expose your containers in the correct way

Earlier I talked about two types of services, ClusterIP and LoadBalancer services. The ClusterIP services only work within the Kubernetes
cluster. They DO NOT work in the virtual network you expanded with the API gateway subnet.

You can still get your API gateway to connect to your REST services however. But you need a different kind of service.
You need to define your service as a NodePort service.

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
  name: coolservice
    app: my-app
  type: NodePort 
    app: my-app
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 5000
      targetPort: 5000

When you define a service within Kubernetes as NodePort, Kubernetes will open a port on the agent nodes and route it to your docker container defined using the ports section of the spec. This means that to use the service from the network rather than another
container in the Kubernetes cluster, you will need to use the routed port rather than the port you defined.

Configure your REST services in Azure API management

Now that you have a service listening within the virtual network there is only last hurdle to take. You can configure your REST services through the Azure portal in your Azure API management instance.

You can either define your API by hand or import it using a swagger file. On our team we use swagger, generated by a library
called Swashbuckle. It analyzes your ASP.NET core app and automatically infers what should be the swagger spec.

To import the swagger spec in Azure API management, you normally provide the URL and Azure API management will import it without
problems. But that's different in this specific case. Your REST service cannot be reached from the Azure management portal and therefor
cannot be imported.

So instead, save the swagger spec on disk and upload it to the portal. But before you do, make sure that you modify it a little bit.
The management portal expects a hostname and a set of schemes in the swagger spec. Both of these are invalid or missing, depending
on how you generated the swagger spec.

To fill them with correct values, make sure that your json looks like this:

    "host": "<agent-ip>:<agent-port>",
    "schemes": [ "http" ]

The agent IP is the IP-address of the Kubernetes agent that contains your NodePort service that you just created.
The NodePort is the port of the service. You can find this by looking at the services in the Kubernetes UI.

Service configuration

A NodePort service has two ports exposed. One is the port you specified in the service spec. The other port is the public port
on the Kubernetes agent that routes to the port you specified. This port is within the 30.000 range. Use that port in your JSON.

For the agent IP you have to look at your Azure Portal. Usually the first agent has address

When you've configured these settings, save the file and import it into your API gateway.

And that's it. You're good to go!